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Treatment of Sexual offenders - Collection of evidence at hospital

This week’s reading provides overview of the assessment and treatment of sexual offenders. As well as, provides an overview about the collection of evidence at the hospital via a rape kit.

After reviewing the reading for week 7, discuss/debate with your classmates the following:1.What are the primary challenges of sex offender treatment programs?

Which treatments are proving to be successful and why? and significantly supported by at least 2 peer reviewed, scholarly sources.

The citation and references are required to be in the most current edition of APA format. Sources used for studies or statistical information should be less than 10 years old. Direct quoting should be limited.Interpretation in your own words is expected.

Week 7 Lesson Introduction Recent studies have shown that cognitive-behavioral treatment programs in a group setting assist offenders by targeting denial behavior and lack of victim empathy.

Multi-system therapy is proving successful with juveniles that combine cognitive-behavioral treatment with an approach that includes family guidance.This type of therapy addresses behavior norms as well as counseling to assist with choice of peer groups, socialization in a school setting, and family interaction.  

Treatment Programs Cognitive-behavioral programs are used for the treatment of many of today’s sex offenders.According to Terry (2013), cognitive-behavioral program goals include the following: 

1. Recognize their problems and behaviors 

2. The feelings that led to their deviant behavior 

3. Identify and eventually eliminate their CDs 

4. Responsibility for their behavior 

5. Reevaluate their attitudes and behaviors 

6.Acquire prosocial expressions of sexuality 

7. Gain a higher level of social competence 

8. be able to identify their high-risk situations 

9. Understand the repetitive nature of their behavior and be able to break the sequence of offending   Many treatment programs in the community are certified by the Association for the Treatment of Sex Offenders (ATSA), meaning that they follow a specific cognitive-behavioral regime developed by researchers in the field. 

According to ATSA guidelines, cognitive-behavioral treatment programs should be focusing on cognitive restructuring, empathy enhancement; interpersonal skill training, emotional management, and sexual arousal control (Terry, 2013). 

Empathy is an important aspect of therapy for sex offenders because the majority are lacking in this area.Empathy is the capacity to perceive another's perspective, to recognize affective arousal within oneself and to base compassionate behavioral responses on the motivation induced by these precepts.

The empathy deficits of sex offenders may result from the lack of intimate relationships or the sexual offender's inability to attribute appropriate thoughts and feelings to others. 

According to some researchers, some sex offenders lack the awareness and understanding of others' beliefs, needs, and particular perspectives.Role-playing exercises used in cognitive treatment programs teach the concept of empathy to offenders (Terry, 2013).

This type of therapy works because sex offenders respond better to tangible rather than abstract tactics.In this method of therapy, the offender acts out the role of his victim(s) while the treatment providers or other members. 

Over half of rapists feel nothing toward their victims at the time of the offense.Empathy is necessary to understand that what they have done to the victim has caused pain not just that the act is against the law.

One goal of the main outcome the cognitive-behavioral treatment program strives for is to make offenders understand the consequences of sexual abuse for their victims. 

In rehabilitating sex offenders, you must have the state of mind that each case is different.This is why classifying offenders allows us to understand what types of behavioral therapy will work best and keeps society safe in the future.

If the goal is to release sex offenders and not keep them in prison for life, then the classification of offenders and likelihood of treatment success is a fundamental. 

Despite the positive outcomes of many sex offender treatment programs, which are discussed in the text, there are several controversial issues in regard to who participates in programs, who serves as treatment providers, in what contexts the treatment takes place, and under what conditions the offenders agree to participate.

Ethical questions arise, such as whether treatment is truly voluntary and whether certain offenders should be excluded from participation.Some researchers have even gone as far as to say treatment is in itself punishment.

Not only are these issues philosophically important, but also, they can also affect the treatment outcome.In particular, outcome may vary depending on the risk level of the offenders (and whether treatment matches the risks and needs of the participants); individual characteristics, including personality traits, such as psychopathy levels, and motivation to participate; and the treatment itself, including the therapeutic climate of the group, the composition of the group, and treatment provider. 

The bottom-line is that incapacitation may be an answer, but it is only a short-term answer.Changing the sex offender’s sexual value violent sexual tendencies must be explored and prevention methods established.

Counselors and therapists must learn more about early identification of individuals who have the vulnerability to spiral into sexual violence as they mature and reach adulthood.

The justice system of today owes it to the public to find sex offender treatment programs that have positive success rates and prove to lower recidivism rates. 

Recidivism Rates In one of the largest studies ever conducted on sexual offender recidivism rates, the Bureau of Justice Statistics followed 9,691 male sex offenders after they were released from prison in 1994(Langan, Schmitt, & Durose, 2003).Of the 9,691 offenders, 4,295 of them were child molesters.On average, the offenders served less than 4 years of their 8-year sentence. ·

Within 3 years after release, 5.3% of sex offenders were rearrested for a sex crime. ·Compared to non-sex offenders, sex offenders were 4 times more likely to be rearrested for a sex crime. 

A 2005 study by Losel and Schmucker evaluated over 2,000 documents involving 69 studies evaluating 80 comparisons of treated and untreated sex offenders.The meta-analysis found sex offenders who received treatment were 37% less likely to reoffend. 

Residence restrictions Studies have found that harsh sex offender residence restrictions are not an effective method of preventing repeat offending and do not deter sex crimes. Niki Delson, a licensed clinical social worker who has worked for 30 years with sex offenders and their victims and who is chair of the California Coalition on Sexual Offending, says, “Where someone lives has no relation to the commission of a crime.”

She calls residency requirements “a smoke screen that does little to help children.” Jill Levenson, a professor at Lynn University says, “Restricting where parolees live can actually do more harm than good.Such requirements tend to push them out of metropolitan areas where they are further away from job opportunities, families, treatment options, and all the things we know that will reduce recidivism (Nobles, Levenson, & Youstin, 2012). Community Notification: Jacob Wetterling Act in 1994 – established guidelines for states to track sex offenders by reporting residency annually for ten years after release from prison. 

Megan’s Law in 1996 – made sex offender registries public. Adam Walsh Act of 2006 – Established the Office of Sex Offender Sentencing, Monitoring, Apprehending, Registering, and Tracking (SMART) within the Department of Justice. 

Summary All though there are conflicting studies regarding the success rates of rehabilitation for sex offenders, it has been proven that intervention does help some types of offenders.

What is most important is that when the offender is released from the program, supervision and follow-up treatment occurs.Monitoring of individuals and providing a supportive counseling role is a necessary step in keeping the offender from relapsing and becoming a danger to society again. 

References Langan, P., Schmitt, & Durose, M. (2003).Recidivism of sex offenders released from prison in 1994.Bureau of Justice (BJS).Lösel, F., & Schmucker, M. (2005). The effectiveness of treatment for sexual offenders: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1(1), 117-146.Nobles, M. R., Levenson, J. S., & Youstin, T. J. (2012). Effectiveness of residence restrictions in preventing sex offense recidivism. Crime & Delinquency, 58(4), 491-513.Terry, K. (2012). Sexual offenses and offenders: Theory, practice, and policy. Cengage Learning.

Treatment of Sexual offenders - Collection of evidence at hospital

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