Cultural adaptation of this foraging people in 1957 - Film-making

*Write responses in full paragraphs after each question below. Organize your responses, edit carefully for spelling and grammar. Use, and as appropriate, define anthropological terms.

Work to include specific examples from the reading to support general statements in your responses but give credit where it is due - cite sources. Discussions are a writing component in the course.

Use the assignment as an opportunity to use concepts and vocabulary of anthropology as you evaluate and respond to discussion questions and your classmates submissions, arguments/ positions.***************"Economic anthropology" - See Chapter 11/ pp. 298 - 303. The film profiles the production strategy of the Ju/'hoansi - ("!Kung").

You will see in the excerpts many interesting aspects of the cultural adaptation of this foraging people in 1957.Many changes have occurred since this was filmed.Notice the technology of film-making in 1957 was quite different:

The large camera using reels of heavy film sat on an awkward tri-pod had(Links to an external site.)no simultaneous sound - you hear the voice of John Marshall the 25-year old film maker on site with his family. (Links to an external site.)

Where is the film? Go to the HCC Library Anthropology LibGuide and use the pull-down menu on the left of the screen, "videos used in courses" and click on "The Hunters".Links to an external site. Sign in according to instructions.Watch the following excerpts (Links to an external site.): (Links to an external site.)

Take notes as if you are an ethnographer, observing everything and recording questions as well as observations.About 50 minutes of viewing if you chose to do only required segments.(Links to an external site.)#1. Required: 0 minutes to 39:00 minutes General introduction to the society/ their campsite/ division of labor/ technology/ families/ personalities of individual hunters/ techniques for hunting/ naming of places - "porcupine place"/ etiquette of hunters toward each other/ egalitarian relationships of hunters/ hunting failure as with the kudu/ beginning to track the female giraffe.

(Links to an external site.)#2. Optional- 0:55:00 - 0:60:00) the final fight of the giraffe - the end of the hunt/ downing the giraffe.#3. Required: (Links to an external site.) 0:60:00 - 1:10:56 minutes.

Harvesting the meat/ beliefs of the hunters/ dividing the meat/ drying the meat/ return to the "weft" or campsite/ the gathering of people for distribution of the meat/ telling the story of the hunt/****************************** (Links to an external site.)

Ethnographic Film: The HuntersETHNOGRAPHIC FILM has a special value for preserving images of cultures through time.This film is over 60 years old.It has been critiqued for some limitations.However, many students find it fascinating in multiple ways.

This classic ethnographic film, "The Hunters",was made by John Marshall in the late 1950’s. He was young - in his 20's and was in the Kalahari with his family.At the time it was estimated there were approximately 800 !Kung (Ju/'hoansi) living in 23 separate bands over a territory of approximately 15000 square miles in the Kalahari Desert.

Approximately 99% of human existence was in small hunting/gathering foraging societies like you see in this film.Prompts and questions1. Economic anthropology: Production/ Distribution/ Consumption of Goods and Services in Societya.

Describe using the categories above and specific information/ images or events in the film, the culture of the Ju/'hoansi as seen in the film. What type of social organization do you see, population characteristics, division of labor, how do children become adult Ju/'hoansi, enculturation.Be sure to mention the technology (tools and knowledge) involved in this cultural adaptation.1 - 2 paragraphs.b.

Using the ethnological terms in text (and powerpoint) state briefly the production (subsistence) strategy and distribution system in the Ju/'hoansi and then, identify the system that dominates in your own society.c.

Develop 1 - 2 paragraphs in which you describe, compare and contrast foraging versus industrial capitalism of our ownglobal society and comment on what you understand as a "sustainable culture" or "sustainability" and why this is a contemporary issue. [see note below*] * Among forages, the study of consumption is basically "counting calories".

In our own 21st century society, the study of consumption involves much more: advertising; consumer culture; business strategies, etc.The Ju/'hoansi produce (take from nature) what is needed, not more, than is needed.This can be described as: "Needs/ Production Complementarity".

Our own consumer society could be characterized by a "Wants/Production System". Do you understand the meaning of "Wants Production"?Think about commercials and other forms of marketing to increase consumer desires for goods and services.

Discuss.d. Describe what you saw in the last 10 minutes of the film regarding "economic distribution" . The major form of exchange shown in this film is "generalized reciprocity".What is the benefit of "generalized reciprocity" in a foraging society? (Some ethnographers speak of a "social refrigerator" to describe how in the absence of a refrigerator, social relations are source of food when you are not lucky in hunting.)

What is the distribution system that dominates in your society? Give an example of generalized reciprocity and redistribution in our society.e. Stories: What stories do the !Kung tell? How do these stories and the people listening indicate the importance of these stories to the cultural values, roles and statuses of importance, and knowledge “constructed” during the socializing at the distribution? [The “stories people tell” construct culture and cultural norms, meanings, etc.]

By contrast: What stories are told in American culture? What do stories people tell inform us about how they live and the dominant values in our society.f. Evaluate the film as an exercise in identifying another culture quite different that the one you live in regarding the economic/ political ways of organizing. Describe your viewing experience: "culture shock"; effort to use"cultural relativism" and humanize the people and culture presented in the film.

Is there value in cultural anthropology students studying this society through film?

Explain.Extra Credit: Up to 20 points;Read the short article,"Eating Christmas in the Kalahari".Develop a description and what you understand is the function of the practice of "Insulting the Meat" among the Ju/'hoasi - a common tradition.

1. How did Richard Lee "finally" recognize this behavior after he bought a large ox for a feast for the group he studiedusing participant-observationfor over a year?Describe his reaction and then how he learns about the custorm.

2. The Ju/'hoansi society is "egalitarian" compared to our own most "stratified culture".How does "insulting the meat" help to maintain the society as egalitarian [ no one is limited in terms of access to productive resources]?

3. Is "insulting the meat" a leveling mechanism in the Ju/'hoansi society?See the powerpoint for chapter 11 for a definition of "leveling mechanism.Then identify one leveling mechanism you know about in your own society.

Why are leveling mechanisms important?Comments from Customer
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Cultural adaptation of this foraging people in 1957 - Film-making

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