History of race and racial profiling that Latina communities face

In this midterm essay, I want you to piece together an analytical argument that does not summarize the readings but puts them into conversation with each other. The task at hand is to not simply regurgitate class notes or highlighted quotes from the readings, but to deeply think bout the history of race and racialization that Latinxs communities have historically and continue to experience in this country. Your essay question is as follows:

• How does the criminal justice system make itself felt in the everyday lives of
Latinas/os/xs? From border enforcement, to stop and frisk, to the phenomenon of mass incarceration, many Latinas/os/xs find themselves and their communities enmeshed within a dense web of surveillance, punishment, and detention.

Some quotes from readings to help.

“Shooting deaths at the border have increased by nearly threefold since border militarization was implemented in the mid-1990s…border militarization is an act of militarization, and militarization is a condition that is inherently linked to the phenomenon of war. War is a phenomenon that is inherently linked to the/an acknowledgement of an enemy who has been declared to be in need of obliteration or quarantine. It is then easier for agents of law enforcement to be more casual about their use of violence as a result of the very rhetoric associated with their initiative.” (Márquez, p. 486)

“The Texas Rangers shaped and protected Anglo-American settlement in Texas. They battled indigenous groups for dominance in the region, chased down runaway slaves who struck for freedom deep within Mexico, and settled scores with anyone who challenged the Anglo- American project in Texas. The Rangers proved particularly useful in helping Anglo-American landholders with favorable settlements of land and labor disputes with Texas Mexicans. Whatever the task, however, raw physical violence was the Rangers’ principal strategy.” (Lytle Hernández, p. 1, The Early Years)

“I argue that labeling is not just a process whereby schools, police, probation officers, and families stigmatize the boys, and in turn, their delinquency persists or increases. In the era of mass incarceration, labeling is also a process by which agencies of social control further stigmatize and mark the boys in response to their original label. This in turn creates a vicious cycle that multiplies the boys’ experiences with criminalization, what I call a labeling hype.”
(Ríos, p. 45)

“In United States v. Brignoni-Ponce, the Court concluded it was permissible under the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment for the police to use race as a factor in making decisions about which motorists to stop and search. In that case, the Court concluded that the police could take a person’s Mexican appearance into account when developing reasonable suspicion that a vehicle may contain undocumented immigrants.

The Court said that “the likelihood that any person of Mexican ancestry is an alien is high enough to make Mexican appearance a relevant factor.” Some commentators have argued that Brignoni-Ponce may be limited to the immigration context; the Court might not apply the same principle to drug-law enforcement. It is not obvious what the rational basis would be for limiting overt race discrimination by police to immigration. The likelihood that a person of Mexican ancestry is an “alien” could not be significantly higher than the likelihood that any random black person is a drug criminal.” (Alexander, p. 131)

Write a few paragraphs on each of the chapter topics in the Bogle text (five chapters in all). In this assignment, you are being asked to show some fundamental understanding of topics such as Black typecasting, The Birth of a Nation, the jesters, the servants, Black independent filmmakers like Oscar Micheaux, Black entertainers, the New Negroes, and the problem people.Your goal in writing this paper is to summarize these topics to show that you have a basic understanding of the issues of African American representations in American films before WWII Comments from Customer

History of race and racial profiling that Latina communities face

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