Artificial Intelligence Essay - History, Development and Application

artificial inteligence technology at work
artificial intelligence technology at work

Of all the technologies that have been adopted in the modern century, there is none that surpasses the complexity of artificial intelligence. This is simply because artificial systems are built to adorn the human characteristics. [blur] By definition, artificial intelligence refers to the computer systems that have been developed with the ability to perform tasks that would have required the ability of the humans such as the speech recognition, visual perception, decision-making, and translation of languages. [/blur] This review will look into the history and application of artificial intelligence in the modern society especially in the context of decision making by analyzing some of the technologies that have been developed and their roles and how in future this trend is likely to advance.

Artificial intelligence traces its history from the 12th century when Ramon Llull cited that the perfected art of using the mechanical means of creating new knowledge by combining simple concepts. [blur] Other philosophers that followed added on this concept citing the importance of the human thought process through interlinking simple concepts. However, it was not until 1920 when researchers gave much thought into the field by studying neurology ad discovering that the brain works by sending electrical impulses of the decision. By 1956, the first robots such as the Turtles by W. Grey Walters and the Beast by John Hopkins were developed. At the time these machines did not rely on computers or the power of digital electronics, rather they would rely on symbolic reasoning controlled by analog circuits (Gil para 5). [/blur]

[blur] By 1970 with the development of the third generation of computers, experts were able to develop systems that would be applied in the medical fraternity such as MYCIN for identifying severe infections. In the year 2000, artificial intelligent systems that had been developed to mimic decision making were deep blue a program that could play chess. Over the last seventeen years, there have been other inventions that have received significant attention owing to their potential in the realm of artificial intelligence. [/blur]

[blur] These are IBM Watson (an intelligent computer that was created to assist doctors in making prescriptions) Google driverless car, advanced deep blue and ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge (ILSVCR). There has also been development of expert systems that have the capacity to make decisions (Gil para 5). [/blur]

[blur] Today, artificial intelligence is being applied in companies to facilitate quick decision making allowing the company to respond quicker to their customerís queries and demands. In the case of PayPal, relying on these technologies facilitates customers to always interact with the systems that have been automated to respond to queries and to respond to their questions at any time of the day. They are intelligence systems that have been developed with the technology that recognizes the voice and responds to their questions one on one. In this way, the company can reduce its reliance on support to respond to customer concerns when the system has this capacity inbuilt. [/blur]

[blur] In addition to the development of interactive platforms, companies have also been on the lookout for systems that can make customers, packaging them and setting them on delivery schedules depending on their the level of urgency that has been tagged to them. Amazon.com, an online-based retailer, has attributed much of its success to the reliance on intelligent systems that can allow the company minimize costs on labor (Zimmermann 34). [/blur]

[blur] The second category of systems that are being used today are systems that can make decisions to notify the company based on the data that they have been amassing over the years. Knowledge systems are the new category of systems which are applied in the context of companies to anticipate the company management towards making decisions. These type of systems rely solely on the accumulated data to find patterns of information which can be used to make decisions. [/blur]

[blur] They are usually different and possess different attributes depending on the features that the users would like them to address. Databases are the simplest form of these systems, but alongside to the databases, there are systems that have been built to accommodate the nature of the data that they are required to process. The first category of these are the decision support systems, the customer relationship systems, and enterprise resource planning systems. [/blur]

[blur] In future, it is anticipated that the use of these decision-based systems is likely to increase depending on the needs that the different industries may have. In a research by Grzymala (67), the author documents that in future it is very likely that tasks such as accounting might have to become obsolete since the systems will have the capacity to make these decisions on their own depending on the market requirements. [/blur]

[blur] So far, systems such as these are already interacting with us as witnessed in the case of PayPal and Amazon. It is also likely that robots will have the capacity to mimic human emotions as witnessed in the Chinese Robotic Fair (Macdonald and Shivali, para 1-15) [/blur]

Artificial intelligence is being applied as a technology in almost every part of organizations today. It is also very likely that based on the current technologies and the respective systems that have been built on to them, intelligence systems might become part of our everyday mode of interaction. So far this has been the current trend. It is also likely that as more technologies are being built, both companies and individuals will be the sole beneficiaries.


By Cheyenne Macdonald and Shivali "The Robots That Think: China's Most Advanced Assistants Go On Show." Mail online. Web. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3879454/The-robots-think-China-s-advanced-assistants-show.html. Accessed 30 April 2017.

Gil, Press. "A Very Short History of Artificial Intelligence (AI)."†Forbes.com. Web. https://www.forbes.com/sites/gilpress/2016/12/30/a-very-short-history-of-artificial-intelligence-ai/3/#be7c364be7c3. Accessed 30 April 2017.

Grzymala-Busse, Jerzy W. Managing uncertainty in expert systems. Vol. 143. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

Michael, Morisy. How PayPal Boosts Security with Artificial Intelligence. MIT Technology Web. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/545631/how-paypal-boosts-security-with-artificial-intelligence/Accessed 30 April 2017.

Zimmermann, Hans-JŁrgen. Fuzzy sets, decision making, and expert systems. Vol. 10. Springer Science & Business Media, 2012.

Artificial Intelligence Essay - History, Development and Application

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